Water power

Basic Principles

Water power plant utilizes the water level difference between the induced kinetic energy, which is converted into electrical energy in a generator. Hydroelectric dam pools of water used in the same annual and daily storage that allows energy is recovered during the rainy and the electricity is produced when electricity demand is highest. Hydro-power can also be used for fast power control, which allows the production and consumption balance (frequency) can be maintained.

Hydro power plants are the ideal forms of power generation. The only problems related to the construction of dams and reservoirs. Reservoirs remain under the wildlife and the water below the rotted crops can result in methane emissions. In addition, the original nature often turns into a wilderness of soisesta tekoaltaaksi

Reservoirs because of the greatest significance to the local people is the fact that the former berry areas usually change their fishing waters. Energy efficient electric energy production benefits will and cons of the fact that the growth of the tree under sinks underserved areas runs out. Tree growth, yield per hectare in the pool area can be return a value greater than the economic benefits of energy basin. Therefore, the pools are built mostly unwooded areas and marshes on.

costs

Hydro power is expensive to build but cheap to use. It is not consumed fuels and require the use of a wealth of operating personnel. The most important thing for the competitiveness of hydropower is the investment cost of the annual production. If the electricity price of 30 € / MWh, you might want to build a hydroelectric power, if the investment is less than 400 euros / MWh per year.

If hydropower can be used to adjust the day, the price of electricity may rise during the day in winter from 40 to 50 EUR / MWh value. In this case, you should invest in hydro 500 – 600 eur / MWh a year. If the water power of the electric energy in the peak of 5000 hours of operating time, hydroelectric power plant investment costs should be up to 2000 – 3000 € / kW.

history

The first hydroelectric power plant was known as the so-called. Arkkimeden screw, which has been known since antiquity. Later, water power was used in the manufacture of flour water mills. After that was invented to introduce a water timber and hydro-electric plant in textile mills. Cities were created for factories around the arm. Since the invention of electric generators could be placed freely in the factories where the people are.

Future

Hydropower‘s share of global electricity production is only about 7%. Hydro power is being built around the world, however, still have plenty of. The majority (80%) of new hydro power plant will be built in the future in developing countries. At the same time as the share of hydropower in developing countries grows, it will be reduced in developed countries. This hydro-electric power to maintain its position in the future and maybe it will increase the level of about 10% of global electricity production.

Wind energy

basic principle

There is many Advantages of wind energy. Wind energy use of the air flow kinetic energy, which is converted into electricity by a wind turbine generator. Wind power is hydroelectric power, investments expensive but the use of inexpensive energy. The drawback of wind power is that it can not be stored. Therefore, the wind power generated electricity price is usually less than the so-called continuously produced. priimasähkön price. Wind power is a clean energy. Wind power is the only significant adverse environmental effect of the noise.

Wind power is continuously developed world, which is why the investment costs have come down all the time. Wind turbines are a viable, particularly in regions where average wind speed is greater than usual. Germany’s west coast is ideal for wind energy area and there will be built by the majority of the Germany wind power capacity.

costs

Wind power investment cost of about EUR 1,000 / kW. If a wind turbine peak load time is 2500 hours, will be the investment costs for the annual production of about 400 € / MWh. If the holding period is 30 years and counting interest rate of 5% (6.5% annuity), get a wind turbine capital cost of 26 € / MWh. With the addition of wind power operating costs, leads to a value of about 28 to 30 EUR / MWh. Wind power is already a profitable investment for Germany circumstances. In addition, its construction could gain a significant approximately 40% of the investment aid.

Wind power is not sufficient as the only energy source, because it requires a lot of control and power reserve power. If  wind turbine operates hydroelectric power plant, wind power, so you should build almost the same as hydro power is available. In addition to the wind farm in the archipelago usually have to invest about 400 – 500 € / kW diesel power plant that generates electricity when the wind turbine stands. This autonomous wind-powered system, the total increases to 1400 – 1500 € / kW.

history

Harnessing Wind Energy began construction of wind turbines. Windmills were originally used to grind grain into flour. They were still the 1800s in almost every village. Electricity has become common traditional windmills were turned off when the grain began to grind electricity.

The 1973 energy crisis was followed by the development of wind power to generate electricity again. Then began the development has continued to this day a brisk pace, and at the same time power plants increased in volume and unit prices fell. The largest plants are already close 5 MW size range and the largest wind farms can contain up to a hundred of force. Wind power parks are now building the so-called continental shelf seas. off-shore bodies.

prospects

The world will be built each year, about 5,000 – 10,000 MW of wind power. It is responsible for about 5 – 10% of the world’s new power plant capacity. Growth will accelerate as the wind power plants, and lower prices for fossil fuel prices rise. Accelerate the construction of the addition, more wind energy on the production of energy subsidies and guaranteed prices for wind power. Wind power in the future to produce the same amount of electricity as hydro-electric power each. In Denmark, about 15% of the electricity produced by wind power already.

Biopower

Solid-fuel plants

Usually, bio-energy combusted and the heat generated in a steam boiler made ??of steam. The steam is first fed to the steam turbine, a generator which provides electricity. After the turbine, the low pressure steam is introduced into the process, for example, paper or render urban district heating hot water networks. Almost all of biopower plant produce at the same time both heat and electricity, or the so-called. cogeneration plants.

The smallest steam-powered bio power plant with a power of about 3 MW and maximum of 200 MW. Their weakness is the poor level of the building, ie electricity and heat production ratio is 0.2 – 0.4. Better heat ratio is achieved when bio-energy into either a liquid or gaseous form.

Bio oil

Liquid bio-oil can be used as a diesel engine fuel. Their building rate is typically 0.7 – 1.0, double that of a steam power plants compared to. The problem is to prepare a quality suitable bio-oils. In general, vegetable fats such as canola oil, olive oil, and palm oil suitable for diesel fuel for power plants, almost as it is. In addition, they can be esterified to produce biodiesel, which is also suitable for car engines.

In addition to the tropical plants have the property that their yields per hectare are an order of magnitude higher than the Nordic wood or reeds. For example, palm oil plantation at the equator to produce per hectare of about 4 tons of light fuel calorific equivalent of palm oil per year. The annual yield per hectare is the calorific value of about 40 MWh, of which diesel engine can produce approximately 18 MWh of electricity. Acres in the yield could produce electrically heated houses with electricity permanently.

If all the forests of Sweden (EUR 12 million. Hectares) would produce as efficiently, so for them to provide electricity to 216 TWh, or 2.5 times the size of Swedens electricity needs. The annual growth of wood in Sweden is about 70 million. m3, with a heating value of approximately 100 TWh. In conventional steam power plants burning wood to about 30 TWh of electricity. Palm oil and diesel power plants produce per hectare calculated as seven times the amount of electricity compared to traditional carbon dioxide free.

Biogas Power Plants

Biogas consists of anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment plants and landfills. Born of methane and carbon dioxide mixture is burned in heating plants or gas engines. In general, plants are small less than 1 MW in size.

Biofuels can also be gasified and used in spark ignition engines. For example, during the war, a large part of the fleet went to wood gas. According to the latest carburettors now enables the engine to build power plants, which are biomass by gas.

history

Germany has long been the leading country in the production of biopower. Biopower is based mainly on the forest industry waste wood and pulp black liquor from the utilization of steam power plants. Waste wood are the branches, stumps, bark and sawdust. Almost all of the wood raw material can be used for breeding or energy.

Traditional biopower production has been based on the pulp black liquor burning. Manufacture of pulp, about half of the calorific value of the wood is burned and the other half (cellulose) is processed into paper. Manufacture of pulp, generated about as much electricity, and often at the same site of the paper consumed.

One tonne of paper it takes to manufacture using traditional methods one ton of coal energy. Classic pulp mill and paper machine formed by the integrated site is usually almost self-sufficient in terms of energy. Mechanical pulping waste liquors is not reached, so a roughly equivalent amount of energy has to be bought from outside in the form of electricity.

prospects

Fossil fuel energy taxes due biopower and heat production has increased since the early 1990s from the strong. Energy taxes penalize fossil fuels and make an attractive biopower generation of heat. If heat is produced in larger quantities, it is worth while to produce electricity. Development has also contributed to the development of bio-energy harvesting technology, which has been such as chips price competitive.

One may well predict that global electricity production, in future, more than 10% of the biomass-fueled plants. If in addition to hydro power and wind power covering each account for about 10% of electricity production, the global electricity production by about a third in the future may be based on renewable energy sources, such as Sweden, already in the early 2000s.

Equatorial both sides of the zones can be completely self-sufficient in energy production of bio-oils just farming. At the same time they can generate the traffic needed fuel for yourself. In Brazil, for example, a large proportion of the cars passing in a reed made ??of a mixture of ethanol and gasoline. Bioenergy Technology exporting Finnish industry is opening up huge market.